Download the authoritative guide: Enterprise Data Storage 2018: Optimizing Your Storage Infrastructure
The three disk drive vendors have decades of data on the reliability of disk drives and methods to test disk drives to ensure that they are reliable. The companies know how to test things and have process and procedures to make sure products are right before they are shipped. Yes, there have been some mistakes over the years, but I have not heard of anything big in about a decade.
There is a great deal more known about the failure conditions for disk drives and what each error condition means than there is for flash. We have moved in a short period of time from SLC, to MLC to TCL, while at the same time going from 45 nm to 32 nm to 22 nm and soon even smaller. This is far different than disk drives, where for the most part, the same technology has been used for many years. The only major change over the last few years was the disk heads. Of course, with shingled disks and bit-patterned media and heat-assisted magnetic recording, this will change. But at least for now, disks have a significant historical advantage for reliability given the longevity of the technology.
Infrastructure and Vendor Count
There are far too many SSD vendors given the market size and the cost of sales, marketing and, of course, engineering and development. I have said for a long time the market must consolidate.
For the last 20 years or so, the way users get storage is from the controller vendors, and at least for the foreseeable future, that is not going to change. Yes, I admit that for some applications like Hadoop, storage comes with the servers. And I also agree that people are now building their own storage systems with software RAID, RAID cards and the like. Still, the majority of storage for the enterprise still comes via the traditional storage vendors.
These storage vendors do not want lots of SSD vendors in the space. Working with too many vendors makes things too complex because each of the storage vendors has a prolonged and complex qualification period.
A storage device must meet reliability and performance requirements, and the device’s failure characteristics must be completely and thoroughly understood. That means that all of the error counters must be validated and failure conditions understood so that the vendors can proactively fail the devices to ensure the integrity of the data in the LUN. All of the Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology (SMART) data must be understood. Since some of the newer SSDs vendors have a limited reporting history and a limited understanding of what is important to report, I suggest there is a great deal to learn.
Even the older SSD vendors are using new technology, which might take a significant time and testing to understand.
Last But Not Least
Abraham Maslow once said, "I suppose it is tempting, if the only tool you have is a hammer, to treat everything as if it were a nail." And unfortunately many of the newcomers to the storage market seem to see all problems one way.
This is not to say that I believe all of the vendors think this way. There is some really good development work going on using PCIe SSDs as a memory extensions.
NAND SSDs have a place in the storage hierarchy, but they are not going to replace spinning disk. Some disruptive technology might suddenly appear and cause a change in the market, but it is not going to be NAND for the reasons outline above.
I think the NAND SSD market is going to continue to see consolidation with vendors buying other vendors and some just disappearing from the market. It happened in the disk drive market in the 1980s and early 1990s, and now it is happening in the SSD market.
The cost of qualification of products is just too high and the market is too controlled by the storage controller vendors. We have not seen a disruptive technology hit the storage market in many decades. And I do not think NAND SSDs are a disruptive technology.
That is not say that they are not a good technology and a useful technology. Enterprise storage is still and I think will be under the control of the controller vendors for the foreseeable future.